Saturday, 9 December 2017

What Role for Social Sciences in Innovation? Re-Assessing How Scientific Disciplines Contribute to Different Industries | OECD STI Policy Paper

What Role for Social Sciences in Innovation? Re-Assessing How Scientific Disciplines Contribute to Different Industries 
by Caroline Paunov, Sandra Planes-Satorra, Tadanori Moriguchi; OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Paper No. 45, 2017,

Abstract: Knowledge transfer between industry and science is fundamental to innovation. There are important differences across scientific disciplines and sectors of activity in that, for instance, the financial and pharmaceutical sectors have different demands for science inputs. This paper reviews the data sources and associated methodologies available to measure different types of science-industry interaction. It applies these insights to re-assess the contributions of social sciences to industry and the disciplinary needs of the ICT sector. The paper finds that commonly used methodologies fail to shed light on a number of important industry-science interaction channels, and introduce biases in assessing connections. Using new evidence from labour force and university graduate surveys can help to some extent. The paper shows how these additional data allow to better capture the contributions of social scientists and the complexity of disciplinary demands of the digital economy. However, new data sources and methods should be further explored.

Keywords: Review of data sources and associated methodologies, knowledge transfer, innovation, social sciences, industry sectors, Science-industry linkages, academic disciplines, information and communication technologies (ICT)

Wednesday, 6 December 2017

A Brief History of Tuberculosis Control in India | by WHO, 2010

A Brief History of Tuberculosis Control in India.
by World Health Organization, 2010, ISBN 9789241500159. «WHO/HTM/TB/2010.4»

Summary: This report was prepared as part of a World Health Organization (WHO) project funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to review the history of tuberculosis (TB) control in India, to assess the impact of the TB programme on the epidemiology of tuberculosis in India, and to outline directions for future progress.
In 2006, the population of India was 1.1 billion or 17% of the world's population. The country is divided into 35 states and union territories (UTs) which are subdivided into over 600 districts (1, 2). India has 299 people living with TB per 100 000 population or 3.4 million prevalent cases (1). Every year, 2 million people develop TB and 331 000 die due to TB (1).
The National TB Programme (NTP) was launched by the Government of India in 1961. In order to deal with some of the shortcomings of the NTP highlighted by the 1992 Joint Review by the Government of India, the Swedish International Development Agency and WHO, the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) was established in 1993 and the new programme, based on DOTS – the internationally-recommended strategy to control TB, was launched in 1997 (3).
The RNTCP included flexible funding mechanisms, decentralization, an ensured supply of quality-assured drugs at all times, better supervision, monitoring and evaluation, and technical support via a country-wide network of consultants. By 2006, the whole country was covered under the RNTCP, and case detection and treatment success rates had improved significantly.
The challenge is now to sustain the existing DOTS-based programme while introducing all components of the new Stop TB strategy, including services to address TB/HIV, treatment for multidrug-resistant TB, strengthening laboratory services, and integrating TB services in all health facilities of both the public and private health-care sectors. The effectiveness of the TB control programme is likely to increase further with the focussed efforts being undertaken by the Government of India in strengthening the primary health-care system under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM).
An estimated 2.5 million adults, or 0.4% of the adult population, are infected with HIV (4), but rates of infection are higher in four southern states, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, and within these states the distribution of infection is uneven (5). In a community-based prevalence survey in 15 districts, the prevalence of HIV among TB cases ranged from 1% to 14% (6). Although the HIV epidemic in India appears to have stabilized, HIV-associated TB continues to be an important challenge (7).
Based largely on a survey in Gujarat (8), 3.9% (4.9−6.2%; ranges are 95% confidence limits unless otherwise stated) of all TB cases have multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), giving over 130 000 new cases every year (9). To manage MDR-TB will require a substantial increase in diagnostic and treatment capacity. 
India has reached the target treatment success rate of 85% and the target case detection rate of 70%. Over the next few years, routine notification data supplemented by prevalence surveys may be used to determine the impact of TB control. 
India is in a position to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6 and Stop TB Partnership targets by 2015 but this will require increases in funding and human resources, more intensive engagement with all health-care providers and strengthened regulation of anti-TB drugs.

Table of Contents
1. TB control before 1993
2. The Indian health-care system
3. The Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP)
4. Scaling up DOTS: 1998–2006
5. The Stop TB Strategy 2006–2008
6. The way forward: 2009–2015
7. Health systems
8. Conclusion

Monday, 4 December 2017

New Book | Science Diplomacy: India and the World, Global Science Cooperation Opportunities | by Dr Pawan Sikka

New Book
Science Diplomacy: India and the World, Global Science Cooperation Opportunities
edited by Pawan Sikka, 2017, Synergy Books India, ISBN 9789382059752. 

About the Book
Science Diplomacy, in the age of the accelerating science and technology is increasingly becoming a central element of the foreign policy and a soft power. This book, Science Diplomacy: India and the World: Global Science Cooperation Opportunities, points out that science is now becoming even more critical in the complex international relations while addressing global challenges such as Climate Change, Nuclear and Renewable Energy, Natural Catastrophize, Diseases and Disaster Mitigation etc. It Covers: Science, Technology & Innovation in India; National Policy of India on International Science Cooperation; India's Engagement with the World; Science Diplomacy and Diplomacy for Science; Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement; lndo-US Nuclear Energy Deal; FDI and technology transfer; Make in India and Intellectual Property Rights etc. India should create a crop of Science-Diplomats in foreign service to get advantage of the World Science. It is a FIRST book of its kind and is a useful one for the science policy-planners, researchers and readers and students of political science, International relations, foreign affairs etc. A must for the libraries in India and abroad. 

About the Author
Dr. Pawan Sikka (b. 1944) is a former Scientist-G, Advisor, Government of India, Department of Science and Technology (Ministry of Science and Technology) New Delhi. Prior to it as Director (International Relations) for about 7-8 years, he coordinated the Bilateral and Multi-lateral programmes of Iwo international cooperation towards extending the frontiers of new and emerging fields in science and technology. He was Leader of the Indian delegation to SAARC Group Meeting on Science and Technology at Dhaka, Bangladesh, in 1995. He has received his M.Sc., Ph.D. as well as, D.Sc. degrees in Physics. He is recipient of the Commonwealth Visiting Fellowship (1984-85), at the University of Oxford, Oxford, U.K for carrying out Science & Technology Policy and Society and Government related studies, to shape the national and international development agenda. He also received Italian, Sweden, Switzerland, UNESCO, etc. scholarships for understanding the progress of science, technology and industry there. He is a well-read author and widely travelled in India and abroad. He has also delivered special lectures on Science Policy related issues to the M.Phil. and Ph.D. students at the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. He is a Life-Member of the: Materials Research Society of India, Semi-Conductor Society of India, Association of British Scholars (British Council, New Delhi), and Oxford and Cambridge Society of India.

Tuesday, 21 November 2017

Just Released "World Intellectual Property Report 2017: Intangible Capital in Global Value Chains"

World Intellectual Property Report 2017: Intangible Capital in Global Value Chains
by World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, 2017, ISBN: 9789280528954.

About the Report
The World Intellectual Property Report 2017 examines the crucial role of intangibles such as technology, design and branding in international manufacturing. Macroeconomic analysis is complemented by case studies of the global value chains for three products – coffee, photovoltaic energy cells and smartphones – to give an insightful picture of the importance of intellectual property and other intangibles in modern production.

Foreword | by Francis Gurry, Director General, WIPO
Technological innovations and openness of trade have profoundly changed the face of global production. Converting raw materials into parts and components, assembling final products and delivering them to the end consumer involves supply chains that span an increasing number of economies across the globe. 
The emergence of these so-called global value chains has been a force for good: they have made a large range of consumer products more affordable, stimulated economic growth and promoted the integration of developing countries into the global economy – creating opportunities for economic development and the alleviation of poverty.
Intangible capital – notably in the form of technology, design and branding – permeates global value chains in important ways. It accounts for a good part of what consumers pay for in a product and determines which companies are successful in the marketplace. It also lies at the heart of the organization of global value chains: decisions on where to locate different production tasks and with whom to partner are closely tied to how companies manage their intangible capital.
A large number of research reports have been published on the causes and consequences of the rise of global value chains, and many of these reports have acknowledged the key role played by intangible capital. However, few insights are available on why, how and how much. With our World Intellectual Property Report 2017, we hope to help unpack the intangibles black box, in particular by shedding light on how intellectual property (IP) fits into this box.
The report begins by reviewing how global value chains have come about and how they are organized. Against this background, it reveals new estimates of the macroeconomic contribution of intangible capital to global value chain production. These estimates show that intangibles account for around one-third of production value – or some 5.9 trillion United States dollars in 2014 – across 19 manufacturing industries.
Following the approach of our 2015 report, we complement these economy-wide perspectives with case studies of specific global value chains – namely, coffee, photovoltaics and smartphones. These three cases highlight the different mix of intangibles embedded in different consumer products and provide concrete insight into the role that different forms of IP play in generating returns to investments in innovation and branding. In addition, they explore how developing economies – notably China – have succeeded in participating in global value chains by building their own intangibles, and what opportunities may exist to pursue similar strategies in the future.
The evolution of global value chains has been disruptive, with some companies thriving and others failing. It has accelerated the structural transformation of economies, with some workers losing their jobs and others seeing their skills richly rewarded. Technology continues to transform global patterns of production and is bound to lead to further disruption. For example, advances in 3D printing, robotics and automated manufacturing may well lead companies to relocate certain production tasks closer to the end consumer. In addition, the fast growth of emerging economies is set to prompt shifts in the geography of global value chains. 
Policymakers need to respond to the disruptive forces unleashed by globalized production. Global value chains are a human creation and could be reversed, but this would risk even bigger disruption. Shaping them in such a way that they benefit societies as a whole is thus an important policy imperative. 
As always, a report of this nature leaves important questions open. Most importantly, while we present – for the first time – concrete estimates of how much income accrues to intangibles in global value chain production, it remains to be established who ultimately gains this income. At the level of countries, cross-border ownership and sharing of intangible assets make it difficult to associate assets and earnings with a particular country location. At the level of individual earnings, little systematic evidence exists on how intangibles affect the compensation of workers at different skills levels. Future research that offers empirical guidance on these questions would be of great value. 
We hope that this report will inform discussions on the evolving nature of global value chains taking place in different policy forums, and look forward to exploring the contribution of the IP system to global value chain production in our ongoing dialogue with Member States.

Table of contents
Chapter 1: IP and other intangibles add twice as much value to products as tangible capital
Chapter 2: Intangibles are key to seizing new opportunities in the coffee market
Chapter 3: Innovation is transforming the photovoltaic industry
Chapter 4: Success in the smartphone industry is based on intangibles

Saturday, 18 November 2017

New Book | India as a Pioneer of Innovation | ed by H Singh, A Padmanabhan, and E Emanuel

India as a Pioneer of Innovation
Edited by Harbir Singh, Ananth Padmanabhan, and Ezekiel Emanuel, Oxford University Press, 2017, ISBN: 9780199476084.

What does innovation mean to and in India? What are the predominant sites of activity where Indians innovate, and under what situations do they work or fail? This book addresses these all-important questions arising within diverse Indian contexts: informal economy, low-cost settings, large business groups, entertainment and copyright industries, an evolving pharma sector, a poorly organized and appallingly underfunded public health system, social enterprises for the urban poor, and innovations-for-the-millions. Its balanced perspective on India's promises and failings makes it a valuable addition for those who believe that India's future banks heavily on its ability to leapfrog using innovation, as well as those sceptical of the Indian state's belief in the potential of private enterprise and innovation. It also provides critical insights on innovation in general, the most important of which being the highly context-specific, context-driven character of the innovation project.

Offers insights on diverse contexts across which innovation happens in India, including business, health, policy, entertainment, and the informal economy.
Discusses how traditional notions of innovation have been reshaped in the Indian context.
Includes contributions from experts across various fields.

Table of Contents
1: Historical Perspectives on Innovation in Indian Business, Claude Markovits
2: Innovation in the Informal Economy of Mofussil India, Barbara Harris-White
4: Innovation in Indian Business Groups, Prashant Kale and Harbir Singh
5: From 'Pharmacy' to 'Laboratory': The Global Biologics Revolution and the Indian Bio-Pharmaceutical Industry, Chirantan Chatterjee and Shreekanth Mahendiran
6: Fair Use and Fair Dealing: Two Approaches to Limitations and Exceptions in Copyright Law, Shyamkrishna Balganesh and David Nimmer
7: Innovations in the Organisation of Public Health Services for Rural and Remote Parts of India, Sundararaman Thiagarajan and Rajani Ved
8: India as a Hub of Innovation for the Millions (I4M), Vijay Mahajan
9: Market-Based Solutions for Poverty Reduction in India, Brian English

Friday, 27 October 2017

New Book | A Biography of Innovations: From Birth to Maturity | by R. Gopalakrishnan

A Biography of Innovations: From Birth to Maturity
by R. Gopalakrishnan, Penguin India, 2017, ISBN 9780670089895.

R. Gopalakrishnan, the bestselling author of The Case of the Bonsai Manager, explores how concepts turn into ideas, which then become prototypes, models and products. Defining thought as the ancestor of innovation; as without thought, there could be no innovation, he explores the impending questions such as - What happens next? How can you take on challenges and keep your ideas relevant? The Biography of Innovation is the definitive book on the life cycle of new ideas and transformations.

About the Author
R. Gopalakrishnan has been a professional manager for forty-two years. He has a wealth of practical managerial experience, initially in Unilever and more recently in Tata. He has lived and worked in India, the UK and Saudi Arabia, and has travelled extensively all over the world. He began his career in 1967 as a computer analyst with Hindustan Lever after studying physics in Kolkata and electronic engineering at IIT Kharagpur. He has attended the Advanced Management Program at Harvard Business School. He worked initially in computer software, later in marketing, before moving to general management. During his Unilever career, he was based in Jeddah as chairman of the Arabian subsidiary; later, he was managing director, Brooke Bond Lipton India and then vice chairman of Hindustan Lever. He has been president of the All India Management Association. Currently, he is executive director, Tata Sons, based in Mumbai. He also serves on the boards of other companies. He is married with three children. 

Sunday, 22 October 2017

New Books in National Policy of India Series | by Dr Shalini Sikka

New Books in National Policy of India Series

Education and Human Resource Development: Public Policy & Governance in India
by Shalini Sikka, 2017, Synergy Books India, ISBN 9789382059592. 

About the Book: The essence of Human Resource Development is education, which plays a significant and remedial role in balancing the socio-economic fabric of the country. This book incorporates the original texts, in verbatim, of a select national government policies and programmes of India. It contains legislative measures and national programmes towards creating a better India enacted in the field of Human Resource Development. For the first time, to fulfill the long-felt need of the students, researchers, policy-planners, civil servants, administrators, this book is being brought out as a ready reference material, to be used alongwith the existing textbooks on public policy and administration. 

Women Empowerment: Public Policy & Governance in India
by Shalini Sikka, 2017, Synergy Books India, ISBN 9789382059608. 

About the Book: The policies/ programmes of the Government of India are all directed towards achieving inclusive growth with a special focus on women, in line with the National Policy for essence of Empowerment of Women. This book incorporates the original texts, in verbatim, of a select national government policies and programmes of India. It contains legislative measures and national programmes towards creating a better India. 

Social Justice, Health and Empowerment: Public Policy & Governance in India
by Shalini Sikka, 2017, Synergy Books India, ISBN 9789382059677. 

About the Book: This book, towards building a better India, incorporates the original texts, in verbatim, of a select national government policies and programmes of India.

Child Development: Public Policy & Governance in India
by Shalini Sikka, 2017, Synergy Books India, ISBN 9789382059691. 

About the Book: National Policy for Children, adopted by the Government of India in 2013, reaffirms the rights of children in the country. This book incorporates the original texts, in verbatim, of a select national government policies and programmes of India. It contains special legislative measures, national policies and programmes towards creating a better India.

Upliftment of Minorities: Public Policy & Governance in India
by Shalini Sikka, 2017, Synergy Books India, ISBN 9789382059684. 

About the Book: The Government of India has made concerted efforts for the past six decades of so towards the educational development and employment and empowerment of the weaker sections of the society to enable them to join the mainstream of the socio-economic development. This book incorporates the original texts, in verbatim, of a select national government policies and programmes of India. It contains special legislative measures, national policies and programmes towards creating a better India.

Friday, 13 October 2017

New Book | National Industrial Policy of India: New Initiatives of the Government, Public Policy & Governance in India | by Dr Pawan Sikka

New Book

National Industrial Policy of India: New Initiatives of the Government, Public Policy & Governance in India
by Pawan Sikka, 2017, Synergy Books India, ISBN 9789382059660. 

About the Book
National policies, strategies and promotional measures adopted earlier in the 20th century by the Government, since the last industrial policy was enacted in 1991, for the industrial growth in India cannot now deliver the meaningful results, import and export targets, economic growth parameters, etc. in the 21st century. The introduction of ICT (information and communication technology) as well as the new initiatives of the Government, i.e., Make in India, Skill India, Start-Ups, Digital India, etc. besides the enactment of Goods and Service Tax (GST) Bill 2016/17 have further enhanced desires of meeting the rising expectations and challenges of the domestic and foreign markets of "Make in India" products. 
A need has been emphasized in this book "National Industrial Policy of India: New Initiatives of the Government, Public Policy & Governance in India", for the early formulation and enactment of a new National Industrial Policy, say in 2017, with a forward looking approach, towards catching-up of the new and emerging scenarios of the industrial developments in India and abroad in the millennium.

About the Author
Dr. Pawan Sikka (b. 1944) is a former Scientist-G/ Adviser, Government of India, Ministry/Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, where he served in various senior positions, during 1974-2004. He received his M.Sc., PhD as well as D.Sc. degrees in Physics and Fellowship (Science Policy Studies), University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. He is also a recipient of UNESCO, Italian, German and Swiss government scholarships for pursuing further studies there. He is best known for his contributions to Science Policy studies, in India and abroad. He is a life member of the Semiconductor Society of India, Materials Research Society of India, Association of British Scholars, and Oxford and Cambridge Society of India.

Call for Applications: STEPS Summer School on Pathways to Sustainability | 14-25 May 2018, at IDS, U.K.

STEPS Summer School on Pathways to Sustainability
14-25 May 2018, United Kingdom

Applications are invited for the next annual STEPS Summer School on Pathways to Sustainability on 14-25 May 2018.

Application is via an online form. The deadline is 5 pm GMT on Sunday 28 January 2018

The Summer School brings together highly-motivated doctoral and postdoctoral researchers, working in fields around development studies, science and technology studies, innovation and policy studies, and across agricultural, health, urban, water or energy issues. The aim is to explore theories, ideas, research methods and practical applications of STEPS thinking on pathways to sustainability.
The venue is the Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex, near Brighton, UK. Through a mix of lectures, walks, discussions and public events, participants challenge the STEPS team and each other on questions of science, society and development. The school has run since 2012 with the generous support of the ESRC, IDRC and UKIERI. The fee is £1000 GBP – some scholarships are available.

Download the Brochure: STEPS Summer School 2018 (PDF)

STEPS Summer school 2017 testimonials
  • "A great way to expand your network as a PhD student and find like-minded people who I hope to keep in touch with and work with the future." 2017 participant
  • "I can honestly say it has been the best 2 weeks of the PhD so far. To be in such an amazing, supportive and inspiring group has been fantastic" 2016 participant
  • "Wonderful opportunity. A fantastic group of participants, and the very knowledgable faculty treated us as colleagues on this journey towards sustainable pathways together." 2014 participant
  • "Beautiful to have 24 nations in the same room thinking and discussing global to local issues!" 2013 participant
  • "I liked the fact that it really was an open space in which everyone's (teachers AND students) ideas and experiences could be shared and critically engaged with."  2012 participant
The Institute of Development Studies (IDS) is the main venue. IDS is on the edge of the Sussex University campus, set in the middle of rolling countryside but with good transport links to Brighton. The programme includes lectures and discussions, 'walkshops' – longer discussions held on walks through the surrounding area – and social events. The Summer School also includes some time in smaller groups, where participants get to reflect and discuss their own work, led and mentored by members of the STEPS Centre. The discussion in these groups goes towards a mini-conference, planned and run by participants themselves, with support from the STEPS team.

Friday, 22 September 2017

STIP Lecture "Sustainable Development: Role of Science, Technology and Innovation" by Dr R Chidambaram, chaired by Dr Harsh Vardhan | IHC, 26 September, 7:00 pm

You are cordially invited to the First Lecture under 
Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy (STIP) Forum Lecture Series
(a collaborative initiative of RIS, TERI, CSE, CEFIPRA and IHC)
"Sustainable Development: Role of Science, Technology and Innovation"
Dr. R. Chidambaram 
Principal Scientific Advisor, Government of India & DAE Homi Bhabha Chair Professor

Chair: Dr. Harsh Vardhan
Hon'ble Minister of Science & Technology, Earth Sciences & Minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change

Date: 26 September 2017, Tuesday | Time: 7.00 PM

Venue: Gulmohar Hall, India Habitat Centre, New Delhi (Entry from Gate No.2)

About the Speaker: Dr. R. Chidambaram is the Principal Scientific Adviser to the Government of India and Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Committee to the Cabinet. He is also a Member of the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change, Chairman of the High-Level Committee for the National Knowledge Network and a member of the Space Commission. Dr. Chidambaram is one of India's distinguished experimental physicists and he has made outstanding contributions to many aspects of basic science and nuclear technology. Dr. Chidambaram has been awarded the Padma Shri in 1975 and Padma Vibhushan, the second highest civilian award in India, in 1999. 

About the Chair: Dr Harsh Vardhan, at present Minister of Science & Technology, Earth Sciences and Minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change Government of India, was a practicing ENT surgeon before entering public life in 1993. He took over as Minister for Science &Technology and Earth Sciences in November 2014. He is committed to set a roadmap for the implementation of the "Make in India" programme by building a robust R&D infrastructure and promoting synergies between industry and scientific research institutions. The World Health Organisation recognised his contribution to society and awarded him the Director-General's Commendation Medal at a prestigious function held in Rio de Janerio, Brazil, in May 1998.

About the Series: Science Technology and Innovation Policy (STIP) Forum has been initiated with the objective of promoting debate on various aspects of Science, Technology and Innovation Policy. The STIPF will go beyond the disciplinary boundaries by taking into account the intersectionality of Science & Technology and Innovation. It will also bridge the gap between the science and society for dissemination of scientific achievements as well as for generalising debate of societal aspirations and promoting responsible research and innovations. 

RSVP: Dr. K Ravi Srinivas/Mr. Tish Malhotra, Tel.: 011-24682176, Email: ravisrinivas[@], dgoffice[@]

Competition for PostDocs during the Annual Meeting of Lifesciences Switzerland

Competition for PostDocs during the Annual Meeting of Lifesciences Switzerland

Call for applications to the "PIs of Tomorrow: The Future of Swiss Research" session at the next LS2 Annual Meeting 2018, taking place in Lausanne, Switzerland12-13 February. This session offers postdocs interested in an academic career an opportunity to present a talk similar in format to a professorship application interview. Selected participants will have the chance to get a slot for a 15-minute scientific presentation, which should be addressed to a broad audience and in which both the achievements accomplished and the proposed future scientific activities are to be explained. If selected, travel and accommodation fees will be paid by the LS2 organisation.

Frugality and Cross-Sectoral Policymaking for Food Security | by Bhaduri, Sinha, & Knorringa

Frugality and Cross-Sectoral Policymaking for Food Security
by Saradindu Bhaduri, Kinsuk Mani Sinha & Peter Knorringa, NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, 2017, DOI: 10.1016/j.njas.2017.08.002. 

Abstract: The growing concerns about food security, especially in the disadvantaged regions of the world, often point out the inadequacies of strictly sectoral approaches to addressing the problems of agriculture. Such policy approaches coincided with the rise of a global, top-down, formal, science-driven development of agriculture. Over time, such interventions have drawn criticism from multiple corners as inadequately addressing the need for local variation in institutional contexts. The objective of this paper is to adopt a bottom-up perspective to address the need for cross-sectorality in food security policies. Sustainable Rural Livelihood (SRL) and Grassroots Innovation (GI) are two well recognized schools of thought which emphasize the cross-sectoral approaches to livelihood and local level problem-solving. By embracing a frugality lens, we can offer a conceptual regularity in the patterns of behaviour and decision-making highlighted by the SRL and GI schools of thought. Taking a step further, the frugality lens, by focusing on the usefulness of a decision in the actual environment, emphasizes the need to diagnose local institutions better. Note, however, that the contention of the current paper is not to posit 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' as two competing paradigms. It only argues that a frugality lens helps us to better appreciate the strengths of a bottom-up approach for effective policy formulation, an appreciation of which would promote a dignified marriage between the two perspectives.

Highlights:- The need for a cross sectoral policymaking is suggested to better achieve food security in local contexts. Frugality thinking in policymaking is an important way to achieve such cross-sectorality. Frugality can offer a theoretical framework for discourses on grassroots innovations and Sustainable Rural Livelihood. A frugality lens can ensure diagnosis of local institutions needed for policymaking. Two Kenyan cases were discussed as an illustration.

Thursday, 21 September 2017

Report of the Symposium on SDGs, Knowledge and Democracy: Re-imagining Purposes and Opportunities, held at SNU, Greater Noida

Report of the Symposium on SDGs, Knowledge and Democracy: Re-imagining Purposes and Opportunities, organized at Shiv Nadar University (SNU), Greater Noida, U.P., by SHSS, SNU, and CSSP, Jawaharlal Nehru University, during 16-17 January 2017. Report was prepared by Rajeswari S. Raina, SHSS, SNU, March 2017.

Thursday, 7 September 2017

Call for Applications: NITTTR-ITEC Advanced Certificate Course on Modern Library Practices at NITTTR, Chennai, India

NITTTR-ITEC Advanced Certificate on Modern Library Practices 

Where: National Institute of Technical Teachers Training and Research (NITTTR), Chennai, India

When: 29th November 2017 to 23rd January 2018 (8 Weeks)

Aims of the Course: To develop appropriate competencies and skills of Library and Information Faculty/ Professionals in the digital era - streamlining library processes, promoting and enhancing reading habits among the users - Managing and developing web / traditional resource collections, services and facilities.

Eligibility Criteria for Participants: Applicants for this course must be: Faculty in Library and Information Science or practicing library professionals; completed a diploma / degree in Library and Information Science or equivalent; Minimum of two years experience in teaching / administration of Library; Good proficiency in English; Preferably not more than 45 years. 

Allowances: The Programme covers return travel of the participants between his/her home country and India, accommodation, etc., as per the rules governing ITEC/SCAAP Programme of the Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. Further details can be viewed from the ITEC website:

Participation: Only applicants from the least-developed countries (LDCs)/ developing countries will be selected. 

Further Details and Application LinkCourse Brochure | ITEC Website | Also Visit the Website of Indian Mission in Your Country

Call for Applications: RIS-ITEC Programmes on South-South Coopeartion Courses at RIS, New Delhi

RIS-ITEC Programmes on South-South Coopeartion Courses at Research and Information System for Developing Countries (RIS), New Delhi:
  • Science Diplomacy | 8-19 January 2018 | Last date for submission of Application Form to Indian Missions: 31 December 2017
  • Learning South-South Cooperation | Last date for submission of Application Form to Indian Missions: 12 November 2017
  • International Economic Issues and Development Policy (IEIDP) | 12 February to 9 March 2018 | Last date for submission of Application Form to Indian Missions: 15 January 2018

Allowances: The Programmes cover return travel of the participants between his/her home country and India, accommodation, living allowance, book allowance etc., as per the rules governing ITEC/SCAAP Programme of the Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India. Further details can be viewed from the ITEC website:

Participation: Only applicants from the least-developed countries (LDCs)/ developing countries will be selected. 

Sunday, 3 September 2017

AJIP Papers "Inclusive Innovation in India: Contemporary Landscape" & "Inclusive Innovation in India: Historical Roots" | by VV Krishna

Inclusive Innovation in India: Contemporary Landscape
by Venni V Krishna, Asian Journal of Innovation and Policy, 2017, 6(1): 1-22.
Abstract: The essence of inclusive innovation is to serve poor, marginalized and underprivileged sections of society to improve their livelihoods and enable them to climb up the socio-economic ladder. In this article, we explore the contemporary Indian landscape. There is a diversity of institutions and institutional approaches, multiple methodologies and goals in promoting inclusive innovations in this landscape. There are grassroots innovation institutions. All these institutions and groups have demonstrated how to improve the living conditions of poor people and enhance their income. They have developed different methodologies of inclusive innovation to intervene, build capacities and capabilities of poor people towards bridging informal and formal sectors of economy. Indian landscape can now boast of some successful models and a "social laboratory" for inclusive innovation. The challenge, however, remains to replicate and multiply these models to impact other sectors of Indian informal economy.
Keywords: Inclusive innovation, inclusive growth, contemporary landscape, grass roots innovation, organizational innovation, Barefoot College, demystifying technology, White Revolution.

Inclusive Innovation in India: Historical Roots
by Venni V Krishna, Asian Journal of Innovation and Policy, 2017, 6(2): 170-191.
Abstract: Inclusive innovation refers to different types and forms of innovation activities or performance by which we can get more for lesser cost and which could cater and meet the needs and demands of more people. The essence of inclusive innovation is to help poor, marginalized and underprivileged sections of society to improve their livelihoods and enable them to climb up the socio-economic ladder. In the current phase of economic slowdown, increasing unemployment and inequalities, World Bank, OECD and various governments are turning towards inclusive innovation as a new source of optimism or even as a new innovation strategy. Whilst it is being reframed or packaged as a novel or a new strategy, one can trace its historical roots to the AT movement and the Gandhian ideas of economy and society in the 1940s and 1950s. These ideas have inspired and influenced a range of individuals, institutions and civil society groups in inclusive innovation.
Keywords: Inclusive innovation, inclusive growth, grass roots innovation, Barefoot College, demystifying technology, White Revolution.

Saturday, 2 September 2017

New Report | Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. I - National Study

Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India's Electric Grid, Vol. I - National Study

by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (USA), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (USA), Power System Operation Corporation Ltd. (India), and the United States Agency for International Development (USA), June 2017.



The use of renewable energy (RE) sources, primarily wind and solar generation, is poised to grow significantly within the Indian power system. The Government of India has established a target of 175 gigawatts (GW) of installed RE capacity by 2022, including 60 GW of wind and 100 GW of solar, up from 29 GW wind and 9 GW solar at the beginning of 2017. Using advanced weather and power system modeling made for this project, the study team is able to explore operational impacts of meeting India's RE targets and identify actions that may be favorable for integration.

Our primary tool is a detailed production cost model, which simulates optimal scheduling and dispatch of available generation in a future year (2022) by minimizing total production costs subject to physical, operational, and market constraints. Our team comprises a core group from the Power System Operation Corporation, Ltd. (POSOCO), which is the national grid operator (with representation from the National, Southern, and Western Regional Load Dispatch Centers) under Ministry of Power, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), and a broader modeling team that includes Central Electricity Authority (CEA), POWERGRID (the central transmission utility, CTU), and State Load Dispatch Centers in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Rajasthan, and Andhra Pradesh. Our model includes high-resolution wind and solar data (forecasts and actuals), unique properties for each generator, CEA/CTU's anticipated buildout of the power system, and enforced state-to-state transmission flows.

Assuming the fulfillment of current efforts to provide better access to the physical flexibility of the power system, we find that power system balancing with 100 GW of solar and 60 GW of wind is achievable at 15-minute operational timescales with minimal RE curtailment. This RE capacity meets 22% of total projected 2022 electricity consumption in India with annual RE curtailment of 1.4%, in line with experiences in other countries with significant RE penetrations (Bird et. al. 2016). Changes to operational practice can further reduce the cost of operating the power system and reduce RE curtailment. Coordinating scheduling and dispatch over a broader area is the largest driver to reduce costs, saving INR 6300 crore (USD 980 million) annually when optimized regionally. Lowering minimum operating levels of coal plants (from 70% to 40%) is the biggest driver to reduce RE curtailment - from 3.5% down to 0.76%. In fact, this operating property is more influential than faster thermal generation ramp rates in lowering the projected levels of curtailment.

While this study does not answer every question relevant to planning for India's 2022 RE targets, it is an important step toward analyzing operational challenges and cost saving opportunities using state-of-the-art power system planning tools. Further analysis can build upon this basis to explore optimal renewable resource and intrastate transmission siting, system stability during contingencies, and the influence of total power system investment costs on customer tariffs.


Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2 Study Scenarios, Assumptions, and Methodology

3 Customizing the Model for the Indian Context

4 Operational Impacts of 175 GW RE

5 Strategies to Improve RE Integration

6 Impacts of Other RE Targets on the Indian Power System

7 Conclusion


Download Full-text PDF (Free Access)

Further Details 

Thursday, 24 August 2017

Just Released | India: Three Year Action Agenda, 2017-18 to 2019-20 | by NITI Aayog, 2017

India: Three Year Action Agenda, 2017-18 to 2019-20
by NITI Aayog, New Delhi, 2017.

On 1st January 2015, the National Institution for Transforming India or NITI Aayog came into existence as the government's premier think tank. Subsequently, vide Office Order dated 09/05/2016 (Annexure 1), the Prime Minister's Office advised the NITI Aayog to prepare Fifteen Year Vision, Seven Year Strategy and Three Year Action Agenda documents. Accordingly, the present document is being published to recommend policy changes and programmes for action from 2017-18 to 2019-20, the last three years of the Fourteenth Finance Commission. A second document containing the Fifteen Year Vision and Seven Year Strategy is currently under preparation at the NITI Aayog.
The Vision, Strategy and Action Agenda exercise represents a departure from the Five Year Plan process, followed with a handful of discontinuities until the fiscal year 2016-17. The 12th Five Year Plan was the last of these plans. It has been felt that with an increasingly open and liberalized economy, we needed to rethink the tools and approaches to conceptualizing the development process. The proposed shift represents an important step in this direction. 
The Action Agenda has been prepared as an integral part of the exercise leading to the Vision and Strategy document. It has been fast tracked and released first, keeping in view that with the start of fiscal year 2016-17, it is of immediate relevance for policy implementation. Work on the Vision and Strategy document is already far advanced. 
The Three Year Action Agenda offers ambitious proposals for policy changes within a relatively short period. It is understood that while some may be fully implemented during the three-year period, implementation of others would continue into the subsequent years. Where relevant, we have included possible actions by the states to complement the efforts of the Centre. 
For holistic development, all ministries and departments must progress simultaneously and harmoniously. Therefore, as a roadmap for future progress, the Action Agenda attempts to cover nearly all aspects of the economy. Despite this wide coverage, an effort has been made to present all action points with the utmost clarity. To ensure that the document does not become unduly long, however, we have deliberately refrained from providing the detailed rationale for each proposed action. Where appropriate and necessary, we propose to undertake this latter task in the Vision and Strategy document.
The Action Agenda is the result of the hard work and efforts of a vast number of individuals and institutions. The NITI Aayog has been lucky to have three world-renowned scholars as its Members: Shri Bibek Debroy, Dr. V. K. Saraswat and Dr. Ramesh Chand. It also has a number of outstanding Advisers leading its work in different areas of policy. Working under the guidance of the Members, the Advisers and their teams prepared the core inputs that formed the backbone of the final document. I greatly appreciate the contributions of the Members, Advisers and their teams to the Action Agenda. 
Inputs were also sought and received from State Governments, Union Territories and Ministries of the Central Government. Extensive consultations were held with groups of scientists, economists, journalists, voluntary organisations, industry associations and experts in education, health, culture, transport and other fields. Many outside experts also provided extremely useful written inputs. Annexure 2 at the end of the document lists the outside experts exhaustively with the hope that I have not missed anyone. I sincerely thank the states, union territories, Ministries, outside experts and institutions for the gift of their ideas and time.
Shri Amitabh Kant, the Chief Executive Officer of the NITI Aayog, skilfully steered the entire process to its logical conclusion. The task simply could not have been completed without his leadership in navigating and guiding all those involved throughout the process. I am deeply appreciative of the energy and time he generously provided. 
A dedicated team of six talented young policy analysts, who recently joined the NITI Aayog, worked under my close direction to convert the inputs provided by the Advisers and outside experts into a unified document. They are: Chinmaya Goyal, Atisha Kumar, Urvashi Prasad, Vaibhav Kapoor, Rahul Ahluwalia and Devashish Dhar. This part of the exercise consisted of preparation of different chapters, fitting them into a single whole and revising the draft multiple times. The process also included several discussions lasting hours. Atisha and Chinmaya jointly performed the key functions of coordination and editing of the document throughout the process. It was a real pleasure for me working with this brilliant, energetic and enthusiastic team of young analysts. 
Pavithra Rangan oversaw the publication and production of the document. My office staff, headed by Dr. Prem Singh, provided critical logistical support. Prem not only saw to it that all went smoothly but also provided critical intellectual inputs at all stages of the work.
In draft form, the Action Agenda was circulated to all members of the Governing Council of the NITI Aayog at its third meeting on 23rd April 2017. Subsequently, several states and their Chief Ministers provided comments on that draft document. A concerted effort has been made to incorporate these inputs as well as the remarks made by the Chief Ministers at the Governing Council meeting in this final version.
It is hoped that the Three Year Action Agenda will help launch a new phase in our journey towards a New India.
Arvind Panagariya | Vice Chairman | New Delhi | 1 August 2017

Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Three Year Action Agenda: An Overview
Part I: Three-Year Revenue And Expenditure
Chapter 2. Context and Strategy
Chapter 3. Growth Outlook and Resource Envelope Forecasts
Chapter 4. Expenditure
Part II: Economic Transformation In Major Sectors
Chapter 5. Agriculture: Doubling Farmers' Incomes
Chapter 6. Trade, Industry and Services: Creating Well-Paid Jobs
Part III: Regional Development
Chapter 7. Urban Development
Chapter 8. Rural Transformation
Chapter 9. Regional Strategies
Part IV: Growth Enablers
Chapter 10. Transport and Connectivity
Chapter 11. Digital Connectivity
Chapter 12. Public Private Partnerships
Chapter 13. Energy
Chapter 14. Science and Technology
Chapter 15. Creating an Innovation Ecosystem
Part V: Government
Chapter 16. Governance
Chapter 17. Taxation Policy and Administration
Chapter 18. Pro-Competition Policies and Regulation
Chapter 19. The Rule of Law
Part VI: Social Sectors
Chapter 20. Education and Skill Development
Chapter 21. Health
Chapter 22. Towards Building a More Inclusive Society
Part VII: Sustainability
Chapter 23. Environment and Forests
Chapter 24. Sustainable Management of Water Resources

Friday, 11 August 2017

Call for Applications for ASEAN-India Research Training Fellowships (AIRTF) for ASEAN Researchers

Call for Applications for ASEAN-India Research Training Fellowships (AIRTF) for ASEAN Researchers

Supported by ASEAN-India Science & Technology Development Fund (AISTDF)

Objectives: The AIRTF scheme is a fellowship scheme with the following objectives:

  • To promote mobility of scientists and researchers from the ASEAN Member States to India and provide them opportunity to work at Indian R&D/ academic institutions to upgrade their research skills and expertise.
  • To facilitate exchange of information and contacts between the scientists and researchers of India and ASEAN Countries and create a network for building research collaborations.

As a spin-off, the Fellowship awardees may also have opportunity to get co-supervisors from India for their research projects for Ph.D. or Master's degree on their return to their home countries.

Number of Fellowships: Initially to start with 100 (One Hundred) Fellowships per year shall be awarded to young scientists and researchers from ASEAN Member States to get affiliated with Indian academic and R&D institutions. These Fellowships shall be equally distributed among ASEAN Member Country. Initially, 10 Fellowship shall be allocated for each ASEAN country. However, this number could be re-adjusted in accordance with the number of applicants from respective each ASEAN Member State.

Duration of Fellowship: The duration of the Fellowship will be for a period of up to six months. A minor variation in the duration would be allowed on recommendations of the Indian host Institute/ University depending upon the actual requirement of the research project as mutually agreed between the Fellowship holder and the Indian host institution.

Areas in Which Fellowships Are Available: The area/ topic of research for availing AIRTF must be ASEAN centric and must be aligned with the ASEAN Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (APASTI)-2016-2025. A copy of the APASTI is placed at Appendix-I. Fellowship will be offered for working in research topics under any of the following broad disciplines:

  • Science Policy / IPR Management / Technology Transfer & Commercialisation
  • Other multi-disciplinary areas of Science, Technology and Innovation in alignment with APASTI (e.g., Open Access Movement, Scientometrics, Open Science, Open Research Data, Open Innovation, Grassroots Innovation, etc.)

A suggestive list of Indian institutions along with the areas of research offered by them is enclosed as Annexure-I. The Centre for Studies in Science Policy (CSSP) of Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) is one of the research centres identified to host AIRTFs. For further information/ scientific collaboration please contact the undersigned.

Further Details | Annexure-I: List of Indian Institutions | Annexure-II - Application Form

Dr. Anup Kumar Das 
Centre for Studies in Science Policy 
School of Social Sciences
Jawaharlal Nehru University 
New Delhi - 110067, India
Twitter: @AannuuppK | @IndiaSTS

Wednesday, 9 August 2017

CODATA-RDA School of Research Data Science | Sao Paolo, Brazil | 4-15 December 2017

CODATA-RDA School of Research Data Science
4-15 December 2017
ICTP-SAIFR, Sao Paolo, Brazil

About the CODATA-RDA School of Research Data Science
What can justly be called the 'Data Revolution' offers many opportunities coupled with significant challenges. High among the latter is the need to develop the necessary data professions and data skills.  Researchers and research institutions worldwide recognise the need to promote data skills and we see short courses, continuing professional development and MOOCs providing training in data science and research data management.

In sum, this is because of the realisation that contemporary research – particularly when addressing the most significant, inter-disciplinary research challenges – cannot effectively be done without a range of skills relating to data.  These skills include the principles and practice of Open Science and research data management and curation, the use of a range of data platforms and infrastructures, large scale analysis, statistics, visualisation and modelling techniques, software development and annotation, etc, etc. The ensemble of these skills, we define as 'Research Data Science', that is the science of research data: how to look after and use the data that is core to your research.

The CODATA-RDA School of Research Data Science has developed a short course, summer school, style curriculum that addresses these training requirements.  The course partners Software Carpentry (using the Shell command line and GitHub), Data Carpentry (using R and SQL) and the Digital Curation Centre (research data management and data management plans) and builds on materials developed by these organisations.  Also included in the programme are modules on Open Science, ethics, visualisation, machine learning (recommender systems and artificial neural networks) and research computational infrastructures.

The school has been successfully piloted at ICTP in Trieste in 2016 and 2017.  The vision of the CODATA-RDA Schools of Research Data Science is to develop into an international network which makes it easy for partner organisations and institutions to run the schools in a variety of locations.  The annual event at the ICTP in Trieste will serve as a motor for building the network and building expertise and familiarity with the initiative's mission and objectives.  The core materials are made available for reuse and the co-chairs and Working Group team will provide guidance to assist partners in organising the school, in identifying instructors and helpers etc. The first school to expand this initiative will take place at ICTP-SAIFR (South American Institute of Fundamental Research), Sao Paolo, Brazil in December 2017.

Further information about the CODATA-RDA Schools of Research Data Science.

Short Report on the First CODATA-RDA School of Research Data Science, August 2016.

Programme for the First CODATA-RDA School of Research Data Science, ICTP, Trieste, August 2016.

Materials from the First CODATA-RDA School of Research Data Science, ICTP, Trieste, August 2016.

Programme for the Second CODATA-RDA School of Research Data Science, ICTP, Trieste, July 2017.

Sunday, 30 July 2017

New Book | Universities in the National Innovation Systems: Experiences from the Asia-Pacific | edited by V. V. Krishna

Universities in the National Innovation Systems: Experiences from the Asia-Pacific
Edited by V. V. Krishna, Routledge India, 2017, Hardback, 428 pages, ISBN: 9781138213470.

Summary: This volume looks at the role of universities in the National Innovation Systems in economies of the Asia Pacific. It examines the tremendous growth of human and knowledge capital made possible by teaching and research excellence in major universities, along with how universities are being re-positioned as frontiers of innovation in the National Systems of Innovation. The chapters assess the impact of globalisation and innovation together with the emergence of 'new' knowledge sites extended to the Asia Pacific region.
With contributions by experts and academics and key case studies, this book will be useful to scholars and researchers in higher education, development studies, public policy, economics, business and resource management, Asian studies as well as policymakers.

Table of Contents
Foreword by Professor Jennie Lang
1.Introduction: Three Missions of Universities and their Role in National Innovation Systems – Experiences from Asia-Pacific | V V Krishna 
Japan, Australia and New Zealand 
2. Changing University-Industry Links in the Japanese National Innovation System: Towards Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development | Fumi Kitagawa 
3. Globalisation and the future of Australian universities | Sam Garrett-Jones and Tim Turpin 
4. Changing role of research and Innovation in New Zealand Universities | Shantha Liyanage and Antonio Díaz Andrade 
China and India: Emerging Economies 
5. Research and Innovation in Chinese Universities | Weiping Wu 
6. Indian Universities in the National Innovation System | V.V.Krishna and Swapan Kumar Patra 
South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore: Newly Industrializing Economies 
7. University-industry R&D Collaboration in Korea's National Innovation System | Lee, Kong-Rae 
8. University-Industry-Government Linkages: the case of Taiwan Ching-Yan Wu and Mei-Chih Hu 
9. Research and Innovation in Asian Universities: Case study of the National University of Singapore | Seeram Ramakrishna and V V Krishna 
South East Asian Countries: Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam 
10. University-Industry Linkages and Innovation Activities in Malaysia | Rajah Rasiah and Hema Subramonian 
11. Universities in Thailand's National Innovation System: Their Contributions on Industrial and Technological Upgrading | Richard F. Doner, PatarapongIntarakumnerd and Bryan K. Ritchie 
12. Role of universities in the national innovation system of the Philippines | Raymund B. Habaradas 
13. Higher Education Institutions in Indonesia: Access, Innovation and Research | R. Alpha Amirrachman 
14. The Roles of Universities in Vietnam's National Innovation System | Nguyen Ngoc Anh, Nguyen Phuong Mai, Doan Quang Hung and Dao Ngoc Tien 
15. Asia Pacific Universities in National Innovation Systems: Concluding Synthesis | V.V.Krishna

Wednesday, 26 July 2017

ALIS Article | Science in pre-independent India: a scientometric perspective | by S K Patra and Mammo Muchie

Science in Pre-Independent India: A Scientometric Perspective
by Swapan Kumar Patra and Mammo Muchie
Annals of Library and Information Studies, 2017, 64(2), 125-136.
Abstract: Scientific publications and different types of collaboration pattern in pre-independent India are mapped using scientometrics and social network analysis tools. Publication data of Indian authors published before 1947 are downloaded from the Scopus database of Elsevier science. The study traces the literature growth patterns, core journals, productive authors, authorship collaboration patterns, productive institutions and their collaboration patterns. The result shows that maximum literature was published in the year 1936. The growth of publications during the mid-1930s was evident as many scientific institutions were established by that time. The subject-wise maximum activity was observed in chemistry followed by agricultural and biological science. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences was the most preferred journals. Universities played the prominent role in scientific research. Some private institutions with 'nationalistic' enthusiasm, for example, Indian Institute of Science and Indian Institute for Cultivation of Science were very productive institutions and also prominent in institutional collaboration. These institutions started in the colonial period continue to be the pillars of modern science in India.
Keywords: Colonial Science;Scientometrics;India;Social Network Analysis;History of Science